A framework is an imported codebase that adds structure to your code. The ones that are mentioned frequently these days are React, Vue, Angular, Backbone, Ember, Aurelia, and more. Many of them follow the Model–view–controller / MVC paradigm (while others may only do M, V, or C).
Why Use a Framework?
There are many reasons to use a framework. There are a number of problems with “state” that occur in any given web-app. We’re going to discuss some of the essential concepts that frameworks address in this post.
Terminology Discussed in this Post
- “Imports” and “Exports”
Solving Practical Problems with a Framework
We’ll be using the TodoMVC Project as a guide to learn some of these concepts. Their introduction:
The links below take you to the implementations we’ll be looking at in this series:
- All examples: todomvc/examples at gh-pages · tastejs/todomvc
- AngularJS: todomvc/examples/angularjs at gh-pages · tastejs/todomvc
- Aurelia.js: mhoyer/todomvc-aurelia: Straight forward implementation of TodoMVC using Aurelia.
- Backbone: todomvc/examples/backbone at gh-pages · tastejs/todomvc
- React: todomvc/examples/react at gh-pages · tastejs/todomvc
- Vanilla (ES6): todomvc/examples/vanilla-es6 at gh-pages · tastejs/todomvc
Part 1: Vanilla ES6 - TodoMVC
- Use the app: VanillaJS • TodoMVC
- View the project code here: todomvc/examples/vanilla-es6 at gh-pages · tastejs/todomvc
When first looking at the code for this project, I wasn’t sure of what to expect. Instead of the mess of global
getElementById’s that I’m often guilty of using, the authors wrote a Vanilla JS MVC framework to gracefully handle updating the DOM and the other application functions. The app is nicely modular with ‘Store’, ‘Template’, ‘View’, and ‘Controller’ classes declared in their respective files.
Let’s first look at index.html.
<link rel="stylesheet" href="node_modules/todomvc-app-css/index.css"> links to the CSS styling of the app. The
<body> contains a
section with a class of
main. It contains the todo inputs, checkboxes, and the first
<footer> with a class of ‘footer’. It contains the filters “All”, “Active”, and “Completed”. Next, there’s another
<footer> with some a class “info” that describes how to use the app and external links. Finally, we see two script tags and another link tag:
<script src="dist/bundle.js"></script> <script src="node_modules/todomvc-common/base.js"></script> <link rel="stylesheet" href="node_modules/todomvc-common/base.css">
The final two tags access more functions to render the code into the format you see on the page.
The ‘src’ Folder
Let’s now look into the heart of the app, the Source folder: todomvc/examples/vanilla-es6/src at gh-pages · tastejs/todomvc
src folder, we’ll first take a brief look at helpers.js. It contains a function called
qs which is short for
$on is an
addEventListener helper. The
$delegate function uses both
addEventListener to update the DOM. “Delegation” is a technique that improves app performance by using event bubbling. This post is an excellent description of how it’s used in the Aurelia framework. (We’ll discuss Aurelia in-depth in a future post.)
Next, we’ll look at view.js. As we know, the “View” of an MVC app is the part of the app that the user interacts with. After some
View class is instantiated. In the class
constructor, it takes an instance of
Template which was imported from
template.js. We use the
qs function (the querySelector helper function discussed above) to get the DOM elements, then we
$delegate to an
editItem function that’s in the class. Let’s take a brief look at some of the functions in the class.
editItemputs a todo into ‘edit mode’ by adding a css class, converting the text to an
<input>, and adding it to the DOM.
showItemsfirst assigns the array of items (imported from
items.js) to the template. This is written to the DOM.
qsto query the DOM for a todo item with a given id. If it’s found, it’s removed from the DOM.
setItemsLeftfirst assigns the
itemsLeftnumber param to the template. This is written to the DOM. There are more functions, but let’s move on.
$toggleAllis set to the desired state by forcing it from its opposite to the desired state with
updateFilterButtons“Change the appearance of the filter buttons based on the route.” We’ll look more at routing in
bindAddItemsets a ‘change’ event listener on a
$newTodo. A handler function is assigned to the newly created title. You can see that there are many more functions which add or remove css classes, bind handlers to event listeners, and other state-changing utilities.
Let’s look at controller.js, the “Controller” of the MVC. As you may know, the controller accepts input and converts it to commands for the model or view.
Controller class is instantiated. In the class
constructor, it takes an instance of
Store which was imported from
View which was imported from
view.js we previously discussed. We see all of the “bind” functions here and the use of
.bind to to set the
this value on the associated methods. Read more about bind methods here.. Next, we see
this._activeRoute = ''; and
this._lastActiveRoute = null;. These are “routes.” Routing is important for any single-page application (SPA). It allows you to navigate to different “pages” without reloading the page. The three routing states in TodoMVC are “All”, “Active”, and “Completed.” Now that we have some of the basics, let’s take a brief look at some of the functions in the class.
setViewputs the selected page from the filtered section into view. The route is first changed, then the filter is updated. We’ll look at
addIteminserts the title of the new item into local storage, then updates the view.
editItemSaveupdates an item after its edited.
removeItemtakes the unique item id, updates the filter, then removes the item from the view.
_filterbegins by setting the active route to a
constvariable. It looks at the active route compared to the
_lastActiveRouteand updates the item object. It binds it to the view. The view is then updated with four functions from the instantiated view. Finally, the
_lastActiveRouteis set to the
What We Learned
From looking at the source code, we can see that creating a simple todo list SPA requires some heavy-lifting to be done correctly. The Vanilla (ES6) version of TodoMVC contains an
index.html that imports the main codebase and contains the DOM components. The ‘src’ folder contains all the non-compiled code that is logically glued together with imports and exports. The code is modularized into
controller, and helper functions. We saw how “routing” allows us to have multiple page states within one page. We saw how “delegation” and “binding” allow us to define which functions will be acted upon which elements.
Resources on accessing the DOM:
- DOM Scripting Tutorial
Resources that attempt to answer “Why Use a Framework?”
- Making a Single Page App Without a Framework - Tutorialzine